Balancing Oxytocin and Testosterone – the Key to Ending War

A Future Without War

                                     By Judith Hand


Humans want “to know.” Curiosity starts with us at a young age, when as children we start pestering our parents asking, “Why?” “Why?” “Why?” As adults, we especially want to know why other adults do what they do and feel the way they feel?

For my project, A Future Without, I want to know why we make war and how, or if, we could end it.

Neuroeconomist Paul Zak’s delightful new book The Moral Molecule answers many of our most vexing, intriguing, and important questions.

The Moral Molecule – Dr. Paul Zak

How do we, for example, account for:

• The powerful attachment of mothers (and fathers) to their children.
• The warm emotional glow we feel from a big hug of genuine friendship.

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BOOK REVIEW: “Macro Cultural Psychology: A Political Philosophy of Mind” / Carl Ratner

Always Question Authority

Fight Evil. Read Books.Society—especially capitalist societies, but also some earlier types such as feudalism—is divided by class, with a minority constituting a ruling class that lives by exploiting the direct producers. Thus, the majority is exploited and hence oppressed.


. . . [O]ne of capitalists’ favorite ideological ploys: individualism. We are the masters of our own fate, not society and its culture. If we fail, it is our own fault. We simply did not try hard enough or follow the right path. Individualism favors self-blame and a refusal even to look for social causes.


Enforced subordination calls forth coping reactions and leads to identities grounded in how well we manage to cope.

Examples of this kind of coping include what can be called “the good soldier” and “the sexy woman.” In the former, a person prides him or herself on the ability to demonstrate undying loyalty to a superior. In the…

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Punch Marks on Ancient Indian Coins

Indian Numismatics, History etc

Note: Click on the image to view higher resolution

Punch Mark Coin Marks 7

Symbols on Pre-Mauryan Punch Marked Coins

Punch Mark Coin Marks 9

Symbols on Mauryan Punch Marked Coins

Punch Mark Coin Marks 8

Symbols on Parallel-Mauryan Period Punch Marked Coins

Punch Mark Coin Marks 6

Bindusara, Asoka, Dasratha and Samprati Punch Marks

Punch Mark Coin Marks 3

Salisuka, Devadharman and Satadharman

Punch Mark Coin Marks 4

Ajatsatru, Susunaga, Saisunaga, Kalasoka

Punch Mark Coin Marks 5

Nandivardhana, Nandin, Mahapadma, and Candragupta Maurya

Punch Mark Coin Marks 2

Sisunaga II, Saisunaga, Nandin and Mahapadma Punch Marks

Punch Mark Coin Marks 1

Punch Marks from Chandragupta Maurya and other Mauryan era.

Note: Images from “Indian Numismatics” By D. D. Kosambi

Punch Mark Coin Symbols 1

Various Symbols on Punch Marked Coins – From Delhi National Museum

symbols by region

Symbols on Coins by Region

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