BOOK REVIEW: “Macro Cultural Psychology: A Political Philosophy of Mind” / Carl Ratner

Always Question Authority

Fight Evil. Read Books.Society—especially capitalist societies, but also some earlier types such as feudalism—is divided by class, with a minority constituting a ruling class that lives by exploiting the direct producers. Thus, the majority is exploited and hence oppressed.


. . . [O]ne of capitalists’ favorite ideological ploys: individualism. We are the masters of our own fate, not society and its culture. If we fail, it is our own fault. We simply did not try hard enough or follow the right path. Individualism favors self-blame and a refusal even to look for social causes.


Enforced subordination calls forth coping reactions and leads to identities grounded in how well we manage to cope.

Examples of this kind of coping include what can be called “the good soldier” and “the sexy woman.” In the former, a person prides him or herself on the ability to demonstrate undying loyalty to a superior. In the…

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Punch Marks on Ancient Indian Coins

Indian Numismatics, History etc

Note: Click on the image to view higher resolution

Punch Mark Coin Marks 7

Symbols on Pre-Mauryan Punch Marked Coins

Punch Mark Coin Marks 9

Symbols on Mauryan Punch Marked Coins

Punch Mark Coin Marks 8

Symbols on Parallel-Mauryan Period Punch Marked Coins

Punch Mark Coin Marks 6

Bindusara, Asoka, Dasratha and Samprati Punch Marks

Punch Mark Coin Marks 3

Salisuka, Devadharman and Satadharman

Punch Mark Coin Marks 4

Ajatsatru, Susunaga, Saisunaga, Kalasoka

Punch Mark Coin Marks 5

Nandivardhana, Nandin, Mahapadma, and Candragupta Maurya

Punch Mark Coin Marks 2

Sisunaga II, Saisunaga, Nandin and Mahapadma Punch Marks

Punch Mark Coin Marks 1

Punch Marks from Chandragupta Maurya and other Mauryan era.

Note: Images from “Indian Numismatics” By D. D. Kosambi

Punch Mark Coin Symbols 1

Various Symbols on Punch Marked Coins – From Delhi National Museum

symbols by region

Symbols on Coins by Region

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Suicide: the one truly serious philosophical problem — Camus

The Floating Library

O my soul, do not aspire to
immortal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible.

— Pindar, Pythian iii

An Absurd Reasoning

Absurdity and Suicide

There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy. All the rest — whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories — comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer. And if it is true, as Nietzsche claims, that a philosopher, to deserve our respect, must preach by example, you can appreciate the importance of that reply, for it will precede the definitive act. These are facts the heart can feel; yet they call for careful study before they become clear to the intellect.

If I ask myself how to judge that this question is…

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Five Stages Of Depression

Thought Catalog


On the onset of a major depressive episode, sufferers will most likely ponder a series of questions: How could this happen? Where did it come from? Why does mental illness have to be so stigmatizing? It’s a mix of denial and anger, similar to the first two stages of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s famous model on death and dying. Although her model outlines the coping process for the terminally ill, I believe the same logic applies equally well for sufferers of depression.

Formed after interviewing thousands of terminally ill patients in the late 1960s, Kübler-Ross’s hypothesis became a breakthrough in the field of near-death studies. Over the years, people have found solace knowing that acceptance, the fifth and final stage, is possible. Although depression is not a fatal diagnosis, for those suffering, thoughts of death will loom heavy. Some may feel death has already arrived, floating through a worldly existence they…

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